hepatitis    [,hep?‘ta?t?s]肝炎    107

antigen   [‘ænt?d??n]抗原,any substance (as a toxin or enzyme) that stimulates an immune response in the body (especially the production of antibodies)


Antibodies are substances that a person‘s or an animal‘s body produces in their blood in order to destroy substances that carry disease.

hbsag        [免疫] 乙型肝炎病毒表面抗原(hepatitis B surface antigen)     19
anti-hbs      abbr. 抗乙型肝炎表面抗原的抗体(antibody to hepatitis b surface antigen)   19
dose           剂量   17
administered   被注射   16
anti-hbc       Hepatitis B core Antibody核心抗体   15
hemodialysis    [,hi?m?da?‘æl?s?s]血液透析 11


dialysis (医)透析[?da??æl?s?s]
presence      存在    10
aged    (形容词,动词)老化           9
booster     增加器       7
booster doses of Hepatitis B vaccine

???travelers          6
serologic      [,si?r?‘l?d?ik]血清学的    6

serology[s??‘r?l?d??] 血清学
???schedule           6
immunocompromised    [,imjun?u‘k?mpr?maizd] 免疫功能不全的    6

unable to develop a normal immune response usually because of malnutrition or immunodeficiency or immunosuppressive therapy
???settings           5

fluids    [‘flu??d]液体,流动         5
transmit  传输       4
susceptible    [s?‘sept?b(?)l]易得病的人 ,易受影响的    4

If you are susceptible to a disease or injury, you are very likely to be affected by it

prevalence    流行,患病率     4
practices规范          4
postvaccination  疫苗后     4
???ongoing            4
hbsag-positive   HBV表面抗原阳性    4
???committee          4
???advisory           4
transmission    传递,传送   3
???single-antigen       3
serum    [ ‘s??r?m]      血清   3
schedules          3
protein      [‘pr??ti?n]蛋白质      3
perinatal       [,per?‘ne?t(?)l] 出生前后的    3
interpretation   [?nt??pr?‘te??(?)n]解释,翻译    3
intermediate   中介,媒体    3
end-stage      晚期的    3

viral        病毒的      6
cirrhosis     [s?‘r??s?s]肝硬化     3

is a disease which destroys a person‘s liver and which can kill them. It is often caused by drinking too much alcohol.

antiviral     抗病毒剂  [ænt?‘va?r(?)l]   3

incubation period潜伏期

onset      开始        5

The incubation period from the time of exposure to onset of symptoms is 6 weeks to 6 months


carcinoma  癌,肿瘤[,kɑ?s?‘n??m?]

hepatocellular carcinoma   (缩写HCC)肝癌

genotype         14

基因型[‘d?en?ta?p; ‘d?i?n-]

a group of organisms sharing a specific genetic constitution

genome            12


genome is
the particular number and arrangement of chromosomes within the cells
of an organism such as an animal or plant that distinguishes it from
other types of organism. 基因组

chromosome 染色体[‘kr??m?s??m]

a threadlike body in the cell nucleus that carries the genes in a linear order

subtype 亚型          10

strand           [strænd]线   6

a strand of DNA 一个DNA链,double-stranded    双链   3

polymerase 多聚酶   [‘p?l?m?re?z; p?‘l?m?re?z]      5

an enzyme that catalyzes the formation of new DNA and RNA from an existing strand of DNA or RNA

virion       [‘v?r??n]病毒粒子,病毒体      4

N a virus in infective form, consisting of an RNA particle within a protein covering

???strains            4

envelope        包膜   4

envelope virus 有包膜病毒 ; 膜病毒

transcription   [træn‘skr?p??n]转录     3

the organic process whereby the DNA sequence in a gene is copied into
mRNA; the process whereby a base sequence of messenger RNA is
synthesized on a template of complementary DNA

orthohepadnavirus     正噬肝病毒  3

nucleus    细胞核       [‘nju?kl??s] 3

non-coding         3

mrna               3

信使核糖核酸(Messenger RNA)

template for protein synthesis; the form of RNA that carries
information from DNA in the nucleus to the ribosome sites of protein
synthesis in the cell

interval       间隔    3

clade        /kle?d/   3

N a group of organisms considered as having evolved from a common ancestor (进化)分支





Orthohepadnavirus, 又称正肝病毒属; 代表种:乙型肝炎病毒

Avihepadnavirus(avian hepadnavirus), 又称禽肝病毒属;代表种:鸭乙型肝炎病毒(Duck Hepatitis B virus,DHBV)

avian 鸟类的

open reading frame(ORF开放区)

(cccDNA):covalently closed circular DNA 共价闭合环形DNA

occult        [?‘k?lt] 隐蔽的    41

OBI(occult HBV infection)隐匿性乙肝病毒感染

presence of HBV DNA without HBsAg

donor     捐赠者[‘d??n?; -n??]

(medicine) someone who gives blood or tissue or an organ to be used in another person (the host)     35

blood donor 献血者


recipients  接受者  [ri‘sipi?nt]    21

a person who gets something


transfusion   [trænz‘fj???n]输血    18

the introduction of blood or blood plasma into a vein血管 or artery动脉

screening       审查  18

screening for transfusion 输血筛选

screening of blood donors

blood screening 血液筛选

of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) in routine screening of blood
donors in the early 1970s has greatly enhanced transfusion safety.

infectivity     传染性  15
assays       [?‘se?; ‘æse?]化验     14

HBV DNA amplification assay乙肝病毒DNA扩增分析
candotti     (一位研究员人名)     10
???obis               8

iu/ml              7
???endemic       [en‘dem?k]      7
???conducted          7
transplantation   (器官) 移植   6

an operation moving an organ from one organism (the donor) to another (the recipient)

Blood screening is vital to prevent infection through transfusion and organtransplantation.

residual    [r?‘z?dj??l]残余        6
overt     明显的         5
molecular    [m?‘lekj?l?]分子的      5

molecule   [‘m?l?kju?l] 分子

marker         标记    5
???carrying           5
???post-transfusion       4
nucleic       核的     4
immunocompetent   免疫活性的    4

capable of developing an immune response following exposure to an antigen

???gerlich            4
diagnostic       [da??g‘n?st?k]诊断的  4
diagnosis       [,da??g‘n??s?s]诊断   4
???carriage           4
amplification   [,æmpl?f?‘ke???n] 放大     4
???addition           4
absence      缺乏      4
viremia      [vai‘ri:mi?]     [医] 病毒血症 3

the presence of a virus in the blood stream

variant  (adj,n)不同的,变体 [‘ve?r??nt]     3
transfusion-transmitted  输血传播     3
specificity      [,spes?‘f?s?t?]  [免疫] 特异性3
sera       血清 (复数) [‘s??r?]      3
prophylaxis      [医] 预防 [,pr?f?‘læks?s] 3


the prevention of disease

peripheral   [p?‘r?f(?)r(?)l]外围的,周边的adj,n      3
pathogenesis   [,pæθ?(?)‘d?en?s?s]   n. 发病机理 3
particles     物质,颗粒     3
novel       新的       3

novel immunoassay 新的免疫分析

median      中值,中位数       3

median of 5.8 years 平均5.8年

marrow      [‘mær??]骨髓       3

isolated    [‘a?s?le?t?d]分离的       3
???implementing       3
implementation   实行,执行    3
???hollinger          3
genomic      [d?i?‘n??m?k]基因组的      3
extensively      [ik‘stensivli] 广泛的   3
???dna-containing       3
clearance    [‘kl??r(?)ns] 清除       3
carrier  (病毒)携带者           3
biopsy      [‘ba??ps?]活组织检查       3
amino  <化>氨基的      [?‘mino]        3

window period” (WP)窗口期


defective interfering particles 缺陷性干扰颗粒

nucleic acid核酸

DNA----Deoxyribonucleic acid 脱氧核糖核酸

deoxyribose脱氧核糖[d?,?ks?‘ra?b??z; -s]

a sugar that is a constituent of nucleic acids

whereas 然而,反之



Humoral and cellular immune 体液和细胞免疫

integration of viral sequence病毒基因集成(综合)

pivotal 关键的

neonates[‘ni??(?)ne?t] 新生儿

ALT flare  突然性升高

erupt or intensify suddenly

fulminant爆发性的 hepatitis B

fulminant hepatitis B 爆发性乙肝

clinician  临床医生[kl?‘n??n]

contract 感染

As in highly endemic countries, the majority of infections are contracted perinatally or in early childhood;

approved   官方认可的       12

established by authority; given authoritative approval

preclinical      [pri?‘kl?n?k(?)l] 临床前的;现出症状之前的潜伏期的  7

or relating to the early phases of a disease when accurate diagnosis is
not possible because symptoms of the disease have not yet appeared

inhibit    [?n‘h?b?t]    抑制;禁止  7

to put down by force or authority

inhibitor      [?n‘h?b?t?]   n. [助剂] 抑制剂,抗化剂;抑制者 6

a substance that retards or stops an activity

tenofovir          5


???gilead             5
therapeutic     [,θer?‘pju?t?k](n/adj)  治疗剂,治疗学家 4

a medicine or therapy that cures disease or relieve pain

???foster             4

prodrug      [‘pro,dr?ɡ]   n. 前体药物,药物前体;前药    3

prodrug is a medication that is initially administered to the body in
an inactive (or less than fully active) form, and then becomes converted
to its active form through the normal metabolic processes of the body.

interferon    [生化][药] 干扰素   [,?nt?‘f??r?n]  3

N any
of a family of proteins made by cells in response to virus infection
that prevent the growth of the virus. Some interferons can prevent cell
growth and have been tested for use in cancer therapy 干扰素

Mimic naturally-occurring, infection-fighting immune substances produced in the body

immuneglobulin    免疫球蛋白    3


globulin 球蛋白[‘ɡl?bjulin]

N any
of a group of simple proteins, including gamma globulin, that are
generally insoluble in water but soluble in salt solutions and
coagulated by heat 球蛋白



Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg): A
protein on the surface of HBV; it can be detected in high levels in
serum during acute or chronic HBV infection. The presence of HBsAg
indicates that the person is infectious. The body normally produces
antibodies to HBsAg as part of the normal immune response to infection.
HBsAg is the antigen used to make Hepatitis B vaccine.

Hepatitis B surface antibody (anti-HBs): The
presence of anti-HBs is generally interpreted as indicating recovery
and immunity from HBV infection. Anti-HBs also develops in a person who
has been successfully vaccinated against Hepatitis B.

Total Hepatitis B core antibody (anti-HBc): Appears
at the onset of symptoms in acute Hepatitis B and persists for life.
The presence of anti-HBc indicates previous or ongoing infection with
HBV in an undefined time frame.

IgM antibody to Hepatitis B core antigen (IgM anti-HBc): Positivity indicates recent infection with HBV (≤6 months). Its presence indicates acute infection.

Hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg):
A secreted product of the nucleocapsid gene of HBV that is found in
serum during acute and chronic Hepatitis B. Its presence indicates that
the virus is replicating and the infected person has high levels of HBV.

Hepatitis B e antibody (HBeAb or anti-HBe):
Produced by the immune system temporarily during acute HBV infection or
consistently during or after a burst in viral replication. Spontaneous
conversion from e antigen to e antibody (a change known as
seroconversion) is a predictor of long-term clearance of HBV in patients
undergoing antiviral therapy and indicates lower levels of HBV.


时间: 05-05



pineapple 凤梨 watermelon 西瓜 papaya 木瓜 betelnut 槟榔 chestnut 栗子 coconut 椰子 ponkan 碰柑 tangerine 橘子 mandarin orange 橘 sugar-cane 甘蔗 Cantalope melon 香瓜 shaddock 文旦 juice peach 水蜜桃 pear 梨子 peach 桃子 carambola 杨桃 cherry 樱桃 persimmon 柿子 apple 苹果 mango 芒果 fig 无


很实用的编程英语词库,共收录一千五百余条词汇. 第一部分: application 应用程式 应用.应用程序 application framework 应用程式框架.应用框架 应用程序框架 architecture 架构.系统架构 体系结构 argument 引数(传给函式的值).叁见 parameter 叁数.实质叁数.实叁.自变量 array 阵列 数组 arrow operator arrow(箭头)运算子 箭头操作符 assembly 装配件 assembly language 组合语


托福分类词汇表(共17类863个常用单词) 一.   psychology 心理 1.       mental 心理的 2.       physical 身体的,物质的,物理的 3.       spiritual 心灵的 4.       conformity 从众 5.       majority 多数人 6.       minority 少数人 7.       threshold judgment (心理学)初始性判断 8.       subject 受实验对象 9.     


coffee pot 咖啡壶 coffee cup 咖啡杯 paper towel 纸巾 napkin 餐巾 table cloth 桌布 tea -pot 茶壶 tea set 茶具 tea tray 茶盘 caddy 茶罐 dish 碟 plate 盘 saucer 小碟子 rice bowl 饭碗 chopsticks 筷子 soup spoon 汤匙 knife 餐刀 cup 杯子 glass 玻璃杯 mug 马克杯 picnic lunch 便当 fruit plate 水果盘 too

Python 可视化Twitter中指定话题中Tweet的词汇频率

CODE: #!/usr/bin/python # -*- coding: utf-8 -*- ''' Created on 2014-7-8 @author: guaguastd @name: plot_frequencies_words.py ''' if __name__ == '__main__': #import json # import Counter from collections import Counter # import search from search impor


import jieba import os import jieba.analyse data = cleaned_comments # 数据来源于评论数据 seg = jieba.lcut(data) print(seg) # 增加自定义词表库 mydict = os.getcwd()+"/mydict.txt" jieba.load_userdict(mydict) seg = jieba.lcut(data) print(seg) import jieba.posseg as

GRE高频词汇表wordlist2 词源

对应佛脚词汇wordlist2 Fervent 情感强烈的,热烈的 -ferv- 沸 , 热 + -ent 形容词词尾 Alleviate 减缓 alleviate = al (= ad ,使)+ levi (轻)+ ate (动词后缀)→使其变轻→减轻 levi ←拉丁语 levis (轻) 引申词义减轻,缓和. levity (轻浮.轻率), levitate (飘浮), elevate (提升.举起), relieve (减轻.救济) alleviation (缓和.镇痛剂) Mitiga


金融英语常用词汇70个-按字母排列 American Style Option: 美式选择权自选择权契约成立之日起,至到期日之前,买方可以在此期间以事先约定的价格,随时要求选择权的卖方履行契约.亦即,要求选择权的卖方依契约条件买入或卖出交易标的物. Appreciation: 升值在外汇市场中,升值使指一个货币相对于另一个货币的价值增加. Arbitrage: 套利在金融市场从事交易时,利用市场的失衡状况来进行交易,以获取利润的操作方式.其主要操作方法有两种:一为利用同一产品,在不同市场的价格差


英语新闻常用词汇与短语 经济篇 accumulated deficit 累计赤字 active trade balance 贸易顺差 adverse trade balance 贸易逆差 aid 援助 allocation of funds 资金分配 allotment 拨款 allowance/grant/subsidy 补贴,补助金,津贴 amortization 摊销,摊还,分期偿付 annuity 年金 article 物品,商品 assigned 过户 autarchy 闭关自守 av