Collecting Bugs(POJ 2096)

Collecting Bugs

Time Limit: 10000MS   Memory Limit: 64000K
Total Submissions: 3064   Accepted: 1505
Case Time Limit: 2000MS   Special Judge

Description

Ivan is fond of collecting. Unlike other people who collect post stamps, coins or other material stuff, he collects software bugs. When Ivan gets a new program, he classifies all possible bugs into n categories. Each day he discovers exactly one bug in the program and adds information about it and its category into a spreadsheet. When he finds bugs in all bug categories, he calls the program disgusting, publishes this spreadsheet on his home page, and forgets completely about the program. 
Two companies, Macrosoft and Microhard are in tight competition. Microhard wants to decrease sales of one Macrosoft program. They hire Ivan to prove that the program in question is disgusting. However, Ivan has a complicated problem. This new program has s subcomponents, and finding bugs of all types in each subcomponent would take too long before the target could be reached. So Ivan and Microhard agreed to use a simpler criteria --- Ivan should find at least one bug in each subsystem and at least one bug of each category. 
Macrosoft knows about these plans and it wants to estimate the time that is required for Ivan to call its program disgusting. It‘s important because the company releases a new version soon, so it can correct its plans and release it quicker. Nobody would be interested in Ivan‘s opinion about the reliability of the obsolete version. 
A bug found in the program can be of any category with equal probability. Similarly, the bug can be found in any given subsystem with equal probability. Any particular bug cannot belong to two different categories or happen simultaneously in two different subsystems. The number of bugs in the program is almost infinite, so the probability of finding a new bug of some category in some subsystem does not reduce after finding any number of bugs of that category in that subsystem. 
Find an average time (in days of Ivan‘s work) required to name the program disgusting.

Input

Input file contains two integer numbers, n and s (0 < n, s <= 1 000).

Output

Output the expectation of the Ivan‘s working days needed to call the program disgusting, accurate to 4 digits after the decimal point.

Sample Input

1 2

Sample Output

3.0000

Source

Northeastern Europe 2004, Northern Subregion

概率dp

期望问题

d[i][j]表示已收集到i个bugs(category中)和j个bugs(subsystem中)到完成时还需要的时间。

现找到一个bug,有四种可能:

1.new       new

2.new      old

3.old       new

4.old      old

状态转移方程为:

d[i][j] = ((n - i) / n) * ((s - j) / s) * (d[i + 1][j + 1] + 1) + ((n - i) / n) * (j / s) * (d[i + 1][j] + 1) + (i / n) * ((s - j) / s) * (d[i][j + 1] + 1) +  (i / n) * (j / s) * (d[i][j] + 1);

#include <cstdio>
#include <iostream>
#include <sstream>
#include <cmath>
#include <cstring>
#include <cstdlib>
#include <string>
#include <vector>
#include <map>
#include <set>
#include <queue>
#include <stack>
#include <algorithm>
using namespace std;
#define ll long long
#define _cle(m, a) memset(m, a, sizeof(m))
#define repu(i, a, b) for(int i = a; i < b; i++)
#define MAXN 1005

double d[MAXN][MAXN];
int main()
{
    int n, s;
    while(~scanf("%d%d", &n, &s))
    {
        _cle(d, 0);
        for(int i = n; i >= 0; i--)
        for(int j = s; j >= 0; j--) {
            if(i == n && j == s) ;
            else {
                    d[i][j] = ((d[i + 1][j + 1] + 1.0) * (double)((n - i) * (s - j))
                            +  (d[i + 1][j]     + 1.0) * (double)((n - i) * (j))
                            +  (d[i][j + 1]     + 1.0) * (double)((i)     * (s - j))
                            + i * j) / (double)(n * s - i * j);
            }
        }
        printf("%.4lf\n", d[0][0]);
    }
    return 0;
}

时间: 04-20

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